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Last modified 7 years ago Last modified on 05/31/07 19:43:28
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babel.dates

Locale dependent formatting and parsing of dates and times.

The default locale for the functions in this module is determined by the following environment variables, in that order:

  • LC_TIME,
  • LC_ALL, and
  • LANG

get_period_names(locale=LC_TIME)

Return the names for day periods (AM/PM) used by the locale.

>>> get_period_names(locale='en_US')['am']
u'AM'
param locale:the Locale object, or a locale string
return:the dictionary of period names
rtype:dict

get_day_names(width='wide', context='format', locale=LC_TIME)

Return the day names used by the locale for the specified format.

>>> get_day_names('wide', locale='en_US')[1]
u'Tuesday'
>>> get_day_names('abbreviated', locale='es')[1]
u'mar'
>>> get_day_names('narrow', context='stand-alone', locale='de_DE')[1]
u'D'
param width:the width to use, one of "wide", "abbreviated", or "narrow"
param context:the context, either "format" or "stand-alone"
param locale:the Locale object, or a locale string
return:the dictionary of day names
rtype:dict

get_month_names(width='wide', context='format', locale=LC_TIME)

Return the month names used by the locale for the specified format.

>>> get_month_names('wide', locale='en_US')[1]
u'January'
>>> get_month_names('abbreviated', locale='es')[1]
u'ene'
>>> get_month_names('narrow', context='stand-alone', locale='de_DE')[1]
u'J'
param width:the width to use, one of "wide", "abbreviated", or "narrow"
param context:the context, either "format" or "stand-alone"
param locale:the Locale object, or a locale string
return:the dictionary of month names
rtype:dict

get_quarter_names(width='wide', context='format', locale=LC_TIME)

Return the quarter names used by the locale for the specified format.

>>> get_quarter_names('wide', locale='en_US')[1]
u'1st quarter'
>>> get_quarter_names('abbreviated', locale='de_DE')[1]
u'Q1'
param width:the width to use, one of "wide", "abbreviated", or "narrow"
param context:the context, either "format" or "stand-alone"
param locale:the Locale object, or a locale string
return:the dictionary of quarter names
rtype:dict

get_era_names(width='wide', locale=LC_TIME)

Return the era names used by the locale for the specified format.

>>> get_era_names('wide', locale='en_US')[1]
u'Anno Domini'
>>> get_era_names('abbreviated', locale='de_DE')[1]
u'n. Chr.'
param width:the width to use, either "wide", "abbreviated", or "narrow"
param locale:the Locale object, or a locale string
return:the dictionary of era names
rtype:dict

get_date_format(format='medium', locale=LC_TIME)

Return the date formatting patterns used by the locale for the specified format.

>>> get_date_format(locale='en_US')
<DateTimePattern u'MMM d, y'>
>>> get_date_format('full', locale='de_DE')
<DateTimePattern u'EEEE, d. MMMM y'>
param format:the format to use, one of "full", "long", "medium", or "short"
param locale:the Locale object, or a locale string
return:the date format pattern
rtype:DateTimePattern

get_datetime_format(format='medium', locale=LC_TIME)

Return the datetime formatting patterns used by the locale for the specified format.

>>> get_datetime_format(locale='en_US')
u'{1} {0}'
param format:the format to use, one of "full", "long", "medium", or "short"
param locale:the Locale object, or a locale string
return:the datetime format pattern
rtype:unicode

get_time_format(format='medium', locale=LC_TIME)

Return the time formatting patterns used by the locale for the specified format.

>>> get_time_format(locale='en_US')
<DateTimePattern u'h:mm:ss a'>
>>> get_time_format('full', locale='de_DE')
<DateTimePattern u'HH:mm:ss zzzz'>
param format:the format to use, one of "full", "long", "medium", or "short"
param locale:the Locale object, or a locale string
return:the time format pattern
rtype:DateTimePattern

get_timezone_gmt(datetime=None, width='long', locale=LC_TIME)

Return the timezone associated with the given datetime object formatted as string indicating the offset from GMT.

>>> dt = datetime(2007, 4, 1, 15, 30)
>>> get_timezone_gmt(dt, locale='en')
u'GMT+00:00'
>>> from pytz import timezone
>>> tz = timezone('America/Los_Angeles')
>>> dt = datetime(2007, 4, 1, 15, 30, tzinfo=tz)
>>> get_timezone_gmt(dt, locale='en')
u'GMT-08:00'
>>> get_timezone_gmt(dt, 'short', locale='en')
u'-0800'

The long format depends on the locale, for example in France the acronym UTC string is used instead of GMT:

>>> get_timezone_gmt(dt, 'long', locale='fr_FR')
u'UTC-08:00'
param datetime:the datetime object; if None, the current date and time in UTC is used
param width:either "long" or "short"
param locale:the Locale object, or a locale string
return:the GMT offset representation of the timezone
rtype:unicode
since:version 0.9

get_timezone_location(dt_or_tzinfo=None, locale=LC_TIME)

Return a representation of the given timezone using "location format".

The result depends on both the local display name of the country and the city associated with the time zone:

>>> from pytz import timezone
>>> tz = timezone('America/St_Johns')
>>> get_timezone_location(tz, locale='de_DE')
u"Kanada (St. John's)"
>>> tz = timezone('America/Mexico_City')
>>> get_timezone_location(tz, locale='de_DE')
u'Mexiko (Mexiko-Stadt)'

If the timezone is associated with a country that uses only a single timezone, just the localized country name is returned:

>>> tz = timezone('Europe/Berlin')
>>> get_timezone_name(tz, locale='de_DE')
u'Deutschland'
param dt_or_tzinfo:
 the datetime or tzinfo object that determines the timezone; if None, the current date and time in UTC is assumed
param locale:the Locale object, or a locale string
return:the localized timezone name using location format
rtype:unicode
since:version 0.9

get_timezone_name(dt_or_tzinfo=None, width='long', uncommon=False, locale=LC_TIME)

Return the localized display name for the given timezone. The timezone may be specified using a datetime or tzinfo object.

>>> from pytz import timezone
>>> dt = time(15, 30, tzinfo=timezone('America/Los_Angeles'))
>>> get_timezone_name(dt, locale='en_US')
u'Pacific Standard Time'
>>> get_timezone_name(dt, width='short', locale='en_US')
u'PST'

If this function gets passed only a tzinfo object and no concrete datetime, the returned display name is indenpendent of daylight savings time. This can be used for example for selecting timezones, or to set the time of events that recur across DST changes:

>>> tz = timezone('America/Los_Angeles')
>>> get_timezone_name(tz, locale='en_US')
u'Pacific Time'
>>> get_timezone_name(tz, 'short', locale='en_US')
u'PT'

If no localized display name for the timezone is available, and the timezone is associated with a country that uses only a single timezone, the name of that country is returned, formatted according to the locale:

>>> tz = timezone('Europe/Berlin')
>>> get_timezone_name(tz, locale='de_DE')
u'Deutschland'
>>> get_timezone_name(tz, locale='pt_BR')
u'Hor\xe1rio Alemanha'

On the other hand, if the country uses multiple timezones, the city is also included in the representation:

>>> tz = timezone('America/St_Johns')
>>> get_timezone_name(tz, locale='de_DE')
u"Kanada (St. John's)"

The uncommon parameter can be set to True to enable the use of timezone representations that are not commonly used by the requested locale. For example, while in French the central European timezone is usually abbreviated as "HEC", in Canadian French, this abbreviation is not in common use, so a generic name would be chosen by default:

>>> tz = timezone('Europe/Paris')
>>> get_timezone_name(tz, 'short', locale='fr_CA')
u'France'
>>> get_timezone_name(tz, 'short', uncommon=True, locale='fr_CA')
u'HEC'
param dt_or_tzinfo:
 the datetime or tzinfo object that determines the timezone; if a tzinfo object is used, the resulting display name will be generic, i.e. independent of daylight savings time; if None, the current date in UTC is assumed
param width:either "long" or "short"
param uncommon:whether even uncommon timezone abbreviations should be used
param locale:the Locale object, or a locale string
return:the timezone display name
rtype:unicode
since:version 0.9
see:LDML Appendix J: Time Zone Display Names

format_date(date=None, format='medium', locale=LC_TIME)

Return a date formatted according to the given pattern.

>>> d = date(2007, 04, 01)
>>> format_date(d, locale='en_US')
u'Apr 1, 2007'
>>> format_date(d, format='full', locale='de_DE')
u'Sonntag, 1. April 2007'

If you don't want to use the locale default formats, you can specify a custom date pattern:

>>> format_date(d, "EEE, MMM d, ''yy", locale='en')
u"Sun, Apr 1, '07"
param date:the date or datetime object; if None, the current date is used
param format:one of "full", "long", "medium", or "short", or a custom date/time pattern
param locale:a Locale object or a locale identifier
rtype:unicode
note:If the pattern contains time fields, an AttributeError will be raised when trying to apply the formatting. This is also true if the value of date parameter is actually a datetime object, as this function automatically converts that to a date.

format_datetime(datetime=None, format='medium', tzinfo=None, locale=LC_TIME)

Return a date formatted according to the given pattern.

>>> dt = datetime(2007, 04, 01, 15, 30)
>>> format_datetime(dt, locale='en_US')
u'Apr 1, 2007 3:30:00 PM'

For any pattern requiring the display of the time-zone, the third-party pytz package is needed to explicitly specify the time-zone:

>>> from pytz import timezone
>>> format_datetime(dt, 'full', tzinfo=timezone('Europe/Paris'),
...                 locale='fr_FR')
u'dimanche 1 avril 2007 17:30:00 Heure avanc\xe9e de l\u2019Europe centrale'
>>> format_datetime(dt, "yyyy.MM.dd G 'at' HH:mm:ss zzz",
...                 tzinfo=timezone('US/Eastern'), locale='en')
u'2007.04.01 AD at 11:30:00 EDT'
param datetime:the datetime object; if None, the current date and time is used
param format:one of "full", "long", "medium", or "short", or a custom date/time pattern
param tzinfo:the timezone to apply to the time for display
param locale:a Locale object or a locale identifier
rtype:unicode

format_time(time=None, format='medium', tzinfo=None, locale=LC_TIME)

Return a time formatted according to the given pattern.

>>> t = time(15, 30)
>>> format_time(t, locale='en_US')
u'3:30:00 PM'
>>> format_time(t, format='short', locale='de_DE')
u'15:30'

If you don't want to use the locale default formats, you can specify a custom time pattern:

>>> format_time(t, "hh 'o''clock' a", locale='en')
u"03 o'clock PM"

For any pattern requiring the display of the time-zone, the third-party pytz package is needed to explicitly specify the time-zone:

>>> from pytz import timezone
>>> t = datetime(2007, 4, 1, 15, 30)
>>> tzinfo = timezone('Europe/Paris')
>>> t = tzinfo.localize(t)
>>> format_time(t, format='full', tzinfo=tzinfo, locale='fr_FR')
u'15:30:00 Heure avanc\xe9e de l\u2019Europe centrale'
>>> format_time(t, "hh 'o''clock' a, zzzz", tzinfo=timezone('US/Eastern'),
...             locale='en')
u"09 o'clock AM, Eastern Daylight Time"

As that example shows, when this function gets passed a datetime.datetime value, the actual time in the formatted string is adjusted to the timezone specified by the tzinfo parameter. If the datetime is "naive" (i.e. it has no associated timezone information), it is assumed to be in UTC.

These timezone calculations are not performed if the value is of type datetime.time, as without date information there's no way to determine what a given time would translate to in a different timezone without information about whether daylight savings time is in effect or not. This means that time values are left as-is, and the value of the tzinfo parameter is only used to display the timezone name if needed:

>>> t = time(15, 30)
>>> format_time(t, format='full', tzinfo=timezone('Europe/Paris'),
...             locale='fr_FR')
u'15:30:00 Heure normale de l\u2019Europe centrale'
>>> format_time(t, format='full', tzinfo=timezone('US/Eastern'),
...             locale='en_US')
u'3:30:00 PM Eastern Standard Time'
param time:the time or datetime object; if None, the current time in UTC is used
param format:one of "full", "long", "medium", or "short", or a custom date/time pattern
param tzinfo:the time-zone to apply to the time for display
param locale:a Locale object or a locale identifier
rtype:unicode
note:If the pattern contains date fields, an AttributeError will be raised when trying to apply the formatting. This is also true if the value of time parameter is actually a datetime object, as this function automatically converts that to a time.

format_timedelta(delta, granularity='second', threshold=0.85, locale=LC_TIME)

Return a time delta according to the rules of the given locale.

>>> format_timedelta(timedelta(weeks=12), locale='en_US')
u'3 mths'
>>> format_timedelta(timedelta(seconds=1), locale='es')
u'1 s'

The granularity parameter can be provided to alter the lowest unit presented, which defaults to a second.

>>> format_timedelta(timedelta(hours=3), granularity='day',
...                  locale='en_US')
u'1 day'

The threshold parameter can be used to determine at which value the presentation switches to the next higher unit. A higher threshold factor means the presentation will switch later. For example:

>>> format_timedelta(timedelta(hours=23), threshold=0.9, locale='en_US')
u'1 day'
>>> format_timedelta(timedelta(hours=23), threshold=1.1, locale='en_US')
u'23 hrs'
param delta:a timedelta object representing the time difference to format, or the delta in seconds as an int value
param granularity:
 determines the smallest unit that should be displayed, the value can be one of "year", "month", "week", "day", "hour", "minute" or "second"
param threshold:
 factor that determines at which point the presentation switches to the next higher unit
param locale:a Locale object or a locale identifier
rtype:unicode

parse_date(string, locale=LC_TIME)

Parse a date from a string.

This function uses the date format for the locale as a hint to determine the order in which the date fields appear in the string.

>>> parse_date('4/1/04', locale='en_US')
datetime.date(2004, 4, 1)
>>> parse_date('01.04.2004', locale='de_DE')
datetime.date(2004, 4, 1)
param string:the string containing the date
param locale:a Locale object or a locale identifier
return:the parsed date
rtype:date

parse_datetime(string, locale=LC_TIME)

Parse a date and time from a string.

This function uses the date and time formats for the locale as a hint to determine the order in which the time fields appear in the string.

param string:the string containing the date and time
param locale:a Locale object or a locale identifier
return:the parsed date/time
rtype:datetime

parse_time(string, locale=LC_TIME)

Parse a time from a string.

This function uses the time format for the locale as a hint to determine the order in which the time fields appear in the string.

>>> parse_time('15:30:00', locale='en_US')
datetime.time(15, 30)
param string:the string containing the time
param locale:a Locale object or a locale identifier
return:the parsed time
rtype:time

DateTimePattern

(Not documented)

apply(self, datetime, locale)

(Not documented)

DateTimeFormat

(Not documented)

format_era(self, char, num)

(Not documented)

format_year(self, char, num)

(Not documented)

format_quarter(self, char, num)

(Not documented)

format_month(self, char, num)

(Not documented)

format_week(self, char, num)

(Not documented)

format_weekday(self, char, num)

(Not documented)

format_day_of_year(self, num)

(Not documented)

format_day_of_week_in_month(self)

(Not documented)

format_period(self, char)

(Not documented)

format_frac_seconds(self, num)

(Not documented)

format_milliseconds_in_day(self, num)

(Not documented)

format_timezone(self, char, num)

(Not documented)

format(self, value, length)

(Not documented)

get_day_of_year(self, date=None)

(Not documented)

get_week_number(self, day_of_period, day_of_week=None)

Return the number of the week of a day within a period. This may be the week number in a year or the week number in a month.

Usually this will return a value equal to or greater than 1, but if the first week of the period is so short that it actually counts as the last week of the previous period, this function will return 0.

>>> format = DateTimeFormat(date(2006, 1, 8), Locale.parse('de_DE'))
>>> format.get_week_number(6)
1
>>> format = DateTimeFormat(date(2006, 1, 8), Locale.parse('en_US'))
>>> format.get_week_number(6)
2
param day_of_period:
 the number of the day in the period (usually either the day of month or the day of year)
param day_of_week:
 the week day; if ommitted, the week day of the current date is assumed

parse_pattern(pattern)

Parse date, time, and datetime format patterns.

>>> parse_pattern("MMMMd").format
u'%(MMMM)s%(d)s'
>>> parse_pattern("MMM d, yyyy").format
u'%(MMM)s %(d)s, %(yyyy)s'

Pattern can contain literal strings in single quotes:

>>> parse_pattern("H:mm' Uhr 'z").format
u'%(H)s:%(mm)s Uhr %(z)s'

An actual single quote can be used by using two adjacent single quote characters:

>>> parse_pattern("hh' o''clock'").format
u"%(hh)s o'clock"
param pattern:the formatting pattern to parse


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